# Configuring with Built-in Goners Support

Gone provides a method to read configuration files using the built-in Goners. Currently, the configuration file format is only supported in .properties.

# Example

You can find the source code of the example here (opens new window).

# 1. Create a mod

go mod init use-config

# 2. Add a configuration file

mkdir config
touch config/default.properties

The content of the config/default.properties file is as follows:

my.conf.string=config test

# 3. Add code

touch main.go

The content of the main.go file is as follows:

package main
import (
type SubConf struct {
	X string `properties:"x"`
	Y string `properties:"y"`
type UseConfig struct {
	int      int           `gone:"config,my.conf.int"`
	int8     int8          `gone:"config,my.conf.int8"`
	printInt *int          `gone:"config,my.conf.int8"` // pointer to int
	float64  float64       `gone:"config,my.conf.float64"`
	string   string        `gone:"config,my.conf.string"`
	bool     bool          `gone:"config,my.conf.bool"`
	duration time.Duration `gone:"config,my.conf.duration"`
	defaultV string        `gone:"config,my.conf.default,default=ok"`
	sub *SubConf `gone:"config,my.conf.sub"` // pointer to struct
	subs []SubConf `gone:"config,my.conf.subs"` // array
func (g *UseConfig) AfterRevive() gone.AfterReviveError {
	fmt.Printf("int=%d\n", g.int)
	fmt.Printf("int8=%d\n", g.int8)
	fmt.Printf("printInt=%d\n", *g.printInt)
	fmt.Printf("float64=%f\n", g.float64)
	fmt.Printf("string=%s\n", g.string)
	fmt.Printf("bool=%t\n", g.bool)
	fmt.Printf("duration=%v\n", g.duration)
	fmt.Printf("defaultV=%s\n", g.defaultV)
	fmt.Printf("sub.x=%v\n", g.sub)
	fmt.Printf("subs=%v\n", g.subs)
	return nil
func main() {
	gone.Run(func(cemetery gone.Cemetery) error {
		_ = config.Priest(cemetery)
		return nil

# 4. Run

go mod tidy
go run main.go

The output will be as follows:

string=config test
sub.x=&{100x 200y}
subs=[{0000x 0000y} {1111x 1111y}]

# Configuration Injection

As seen from the example, configuration items can also be "dependency injected" into Goners.

# Tag Format Used

The tag format for configuration injection is as follows:



  1. The tag name remains gone.
  2. config is a fixed value, indicating that the property is a configuration.
  3. ${key} represents the key in the configuration file.
  4. default=${defaultValue} is used to specify a default value, which can be omitted; ${defaultValue} is the default value. If no default value is specified and the corresponding key is missing in the configuration file, an error will be raised.

# Supported Data Types for Injection

In the Core Concepts - Goners (opens new window), we mentioned that Goners can be injected into properties of other structures. Here, configuration, as a special case, can also be injected into properties of other structures. Its implementation is through Vampire (opens new window), if interested, you can refer to this part of the source code (opens new window).

The supported types for properties are listed below:

  1. Basic types
    • Boolean: bool
    • Integer types: int, int64, int32, int16, int8
    • Unsigned integer types: uint, uint64, uint32, uint16, uint8
    • Floating-point types: float64, float32
    • String type: string


For integer types and unsigned integer types, be cautious of the range they represent. If the number is too large, overflow may occur; for example, int8 represents the range -128 to 127, so if a value larger than 127 is assigned, overflow will occur (assigning 128 will result in -128).

  1. time.Duration For convenient time parsing, time.Duration type is supported in the configuration, and the following units can be used:
    • ns: nanoseconds
    • us: microseconds
    • ms: milliseconds
    • s: seconds
    • m: minutes
    • h: hours

In the example, my.conf.duration=10h represents 10 hours; 1h10m10s represents 1 hour, 10 minutes, and 10 seconds.


Implementation uses time.ParseDuration, so you can refer to: https://pkg.go.dev/time#ParseDuration (opens new window).

  1. Struct types In the example, the type of the configuration struct is provided. It needs to adhere to the following rules:
    • The properties in the struct to be configured must be public, i.e., starting with a capital letter.
    • Use the properties tag to specify the name of the property.
    • Supports nesting.

Explanation: In the example, the property sub of UseConfig reads the configuration key my.conf.sub; the type of sub is SubConf, and the property X is marked with the configuration name properties:"x", so the value of sub.X will be read from the configuration item my.conf.sub.x.

  1. Array types Configuration injection supports the Slice type, and currently, the elements of the Slice support structs and pointers to structs. The key format for configuration is as follows:


  • ${injectConfigkey} is the key of the item to be injected.
  • ${index} is the array index.
  • ${structAttributeName} is the value annotated on the property of the injected struct with the properties tag.
  1. Pointer types Supports pointer types for injected properties.

# Configuration Files

# Configuration File Directory

The directory where configuration files are stored is determined by three parts:

  1. The executable file and the current working directory of the program.
  2. Relative configuration directory The relative configuration directory defaults to config, and can be changed by passing the --conf $configDir parameter during startup.

For example, if the compiled gone program is saved as /app/gone-app, and we run it from the /home/degfy directory:

cd /home/degfy/

And if the relative configuration directory is not modified by passing parameters, the configuration directory for the program would be:

  • /app/config
  • /home/degfy/config

# Default Configuration File Path

Continuing from the previous example, the paths for configuration files would be:

  • /app/config/default.properties
  • /home/degfy/config/default.properties These configuration files contain default configurations that do not change with the environment.

# Environment-specific Configuration File Paths

During development, we typically use environment-specific configurations, such as:

  • local: Local development environment
  • dev: Development environment online
  • test: Testing environment online
  • prod: Production environment

We can specify the current environment by setting the ENV environment variable or passing the --env $env parameter during startup. If neither is set, the default environment is local. Continuing from the previous example, the configuration files related to the environment would be:

  • /app/config/local.properties
  • /home/degfy/config/local.properties

# Configuration Loading Order

As mentioned earlier, there are four configuration files when the program is started, and they are loaded in the following order:

  1. /app/config/default.properties
  2. /app/config/local.properties
  3. /home/degfy/config/default.properties
  4. /home/degfy/config/local.properties

If the same configuration item exists in multiple files, the value from the file loaded later will override the value from the file loaded earlier. That is, environment-specific configurations override default configurations, and configurations from the current running directory override those from the program directory.

Best Practices

  1. Put all configurations in the default configuration file and override them in environment-specific configuration files as needed.
  2. Design configurations with minimalism in mind and consider using a "convention over configuration" approach, where default values are provided whenever possible.
  3. To make the code "ready out of the box," it's recommended to set up a complete configuration in local.properties so that the program can run without any additional configuration, facilitating smooth startup for other team members who clone the codebase.